94. What is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)?
Answer : It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous system. BGP enables this information to be shared with the autonomous system. This is newer than EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol).
95. What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol?
Answer : It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers.
96. What are SLIP and RIP?
Answer : SLIP(Serial Line Interface Protocol): It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line.
RIP (Routing Information Protocol): It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers.
97. What is front end processor (FEP)
Answer : It is a type of data Terminal Equipment which is a digital device used to input data and gives the required output. It performs data communications at the host location. The host can communicate with all data circuits present at its server. The host location can also be remote from the server.
The main advantage of FEP is it avoids slow processing.
98. Define the criteria for best path selection of a router?
Answer : A router’s routing table contains only best route. To select a route as best, a router considers the following parameters;
Longest prefix match
Minimum AD (administrative distance)
Lowest metric value
99. Can we use OSPF without backbone area?
Answer : Yes, but it will be limited to intra-area (same area) communication. By default, Inter-area communication is not possible without backbone area.
100. What is RSA Algorithm?
Answer : RSA is short for the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm. It is mostly used for public key encryption.
101. What is Two-Factor Authentication?
Answer : The three basic ways to authenticate someone are: something they know (password), something they have (token), and something they are (biometrics). Two-factor authentication is a combination of two of these methods, oftentimes using a password and token setup, although in some cases this can be a PIN and thumbprint.
101. What is the difference between an OPPF neighbor and an adjacent neighbor?
Answer : Neighbors are the routers that are in the same area and exchange hello packets, but not LSA information. Adjacent routers are routers that have fully exchanged their LSA information and are stable.
If OSPF state is in 2WAY/DROTHER, it means a neighbor relationship and, if the state is FULL/DR or FULL/BDR, it means that the adjacency is formed.
102. What is route reflector and why it is required?
Answer : Route reflector is a solution for BGP split horizon. The rule says “prefix learned from an iBGP neighbor will not be advertised to another iBGP neighbor.”
To overcome this situation, we have multiple options:
Make your network a full mesh
103. What is the difference between ifconfig and ipconfig?
Answer : ipconfig is one of the primary network connection troubleshooting and information tools available for Windows Operating Systems. It allows the user to see what the current information is, force a release of those settings if set by DHCP, force a new request for a DHCP lease, and clear out the local DNS cache among other functions it is able to handle. ifconfig is a similar utility for Unix/Linux systems that while at first glance seems to be identical, it actually isn’t. It does allow for very quick (and thorough) access to network connection information, it does not allow for the DHCP functions that ipconfig does. These functions, in fact, are handled by a separate service/daemon called DHCP.